Thursday, July 11, 2013

以农立业:蜥蜴与烟霾●朱乾海博士

每日一专 农业 2013-07-10 12:33

油棕园边缘的地方有些农户种了玉米、南瓜等作物。收成后旱季时,一把火将残余及野草烧掉,这类小植物易燃快熄,耕地清理了,灰烬当肥料有着落了。

如果是泥碳土,埋在地下的木材着火延续燃烧,地面上只见到各处分布的小火,此景印尼加里曼丹的农民习以为常,完全不在意,因为泥碳土的火场不伤人,只是制造烟霾。

有这么一个故事:恶作剧者将火种系在蜥蜴的尾巴,驱它向油棕园奔爬放火,后果不难想像。

前大马森林研究所副所长Francis Ng博士去年旱季到加里曼丹出差,日前他在金宝拉曼大学和我碰面,提醒我他给报馆发出的那封旧信。

他说车子在路上行驶,道路二旁的植物在燃烧,简陋房舍冒出的炊烟和围绕房舍的野火烟同时往上冒,多少年来就是这么一幅景象。和澳洲、美国、地中海的熊熊野火,加里曼丹的野火算得什么。

起火烧芭有原因

加里曼丹起火烧芭有其特殊原因。

早年从瓜哇来此的移民以及他们的子孙,千千万万人无条件准许择地而居,清理一块地就可据为己有。

烧芭后可建“家园”

伐木商开辟好路,伐木后留下的残枝败叶容易起火,烧芭后就可建立“家园”。

清理后的芭地,能种多少就多少,不能种或回归原野等候新人来占据,或年年的以火清理“自己”这片土地,盼望早日有人带来一叠叠钞票买去种油棕,这是穷苦拓荒者的梦想,脱离极贫的唯一希望。

加里曼丹的内地泥碳土深数米,硬木大树如Qamin的枝干埋在地里不容易腐烂,从苏拉威西(Sulawesi)迁徙来的武吉斯族移民都是稻农,烧芭后不能种稻,先种不计较酸性土的黄梨或其他耐酸土作物。

经过10年,年年烧的结果,泥碳土已转变成矿质土才种稻米。

苏门答腊的火患和烟霾是火热干旱气候引发的自然灾害,还是农业活动的后果,各有说词。如果罪魁是农业,责难怪罪不必太严厉。

几百年来,小农民以火助耕得以延续生存的权利。今天,社会进步,民智大开,保护地球就是保护人类下一代免于更多的灾害。

先收集证据才定罪

另一方面,如果园丘公司和烟霾有关,那么遭受谴责,甚至处罚,也应俯首认罪道歉。

印尼政府正当的做法是先收集证据才定罪,反其道而行是为非政府组织煽火,为国际传媒制造新闻高潮。

朱乾海博士 橡胶研究专家

南洋網

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